This paper, based on a recent comprehensive sampling of insects, is the rstreport of Laboulbeniales from the New England region since the 1930s. We present 7 new records of laboulbenialean parasites on Staphylinidae (rove beetles) and Coccinellidae (lady beetles) from the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. These are Clonophoro- myces nipponicus Terada & I.I. Tav., Hesperomyces virescens Thaxt., Ilyomyces cf. maireiF. Picard, Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxt., Peyritschiella protea Thaxt., Stichomyces conoso- matis Thaxt., and Teratomyces actobii Thaxt. One of these parasite species, C. nipponicus, has not been found previously outside of its type locality in Japan. Examination of Roland Thaxter’s 1891–1932 slides led to the designation of lectotypes for L. philonthi, P. protea,S. conosomatis, and T. actobii. The following synonymy is established: Teratomyces brevi- caulis Thaxt. = T. actobii. In addition, we discovered new localities for H. virescens (from Canada, Cuba, Guatemala, and Japan) and L. philonthi (from Canada, Grenada, Panama, Trinidad, and Venezuela).
Pyronemataceae is the largest and most heterogeneous family of Pezizomycetes. It is morphologically and ecologically highly diverse, comprising saprobic, ectomycorrhizal, bryosymbiotic and parasitic species, occurring in a broad range of habitats (on soil, burnt ground, debris, wood, dung and inside living bryophytes, plants and lichens). To assess the monophyly of Pyronemataceae and provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the group, we compiled a four-gene dataset including one nuclear ribosomal and three protein-coding genes for 132 distinct Pezizomycetes species (4437 nucleotides with all markers available for 80% of the total 142 included taxa). This is the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Pyronemataceae, and Pezizomycetes, to date. Three hundred ninety-four new sequences were generated during this project, with the following numbers for each gene: RPB1 (124), RPB2 (99), EF-1 alpha (120) and LSU rDNA (51). The dataset includes 93 unique species from 40 genera of Pyronemataceae, and 34 species from 25 genera representing an additional 12 families of the class. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggest that Pyronemataceae is paraphyletic due to the nesting of both Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae within the family. Four lineages with taxa currently classified in the family, the Boubovia, Geopyxis, Pseudombrophila and Pulvinula lineages, form a monophyletic group with Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae. We advocate the exclusion of these four lineages in order to recognize a monophyletic Pyronemataceae. The genus Coprotus (Thelebolales, Leotiomycetes) is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes, forming a strongly supported monophyletic group with Boubovia. Ten strongly supported lineages are identified within Pyronemataceae s. str. Of these, the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages are identified as successive sister lineages to the rest of Pyronemataceae s. str. The highly reduced (gymnohymenial) Monascella is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes and is for the first time suggested to be closely related to the cleistothecial Warcupia, as a sister group to the primarily apothecial Otidea. None of the lineages of pyronemataceous taxa identified here correspond to previous families or subfamily classifications. Ancestral character state reconstructions (ASR) using a Bayesian approach support that the ancestors of Pezizomycetes and Pyronemataceae were soil inhabiting and saprobic. Ectomycorrhizae have arisen within both lineages A, B and C of Pezizomycetes and are suggested to have evolved independently seven to eight times within Pyronemataceae s. L, whereas an obligate bryosymbiotic lifestyle has arisen only twice. No reversals to a free-living, saprobic lifestyle have happened from symbiotic or parasitic Pyronemataceae. Specializations to various substrates (e.g. burnt ground and dung) are suggested to have occurred several times in mainly saprobic lineages. Although carotenoids in the apothecia are shown to have arisen at least four times in Pezizomycetes, the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str., excluding the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages, most likely produced carotenoids, which were then subsequently lost in some clades ( and possibly gained again). Excipular hairs were found with a high probability to be absent from apothecia in the deepest nodes of Pezizomycetes and in the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str. True hairs are restricted to the core group of Pyronemataceae s. str., but are also found in Lasiobolus (Ascodesmidaceae), the Pseudombrophila lineage and the clade of Chorioactidaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae and Sarcosomataceae. The number of gains and losses of true hairs within Pyronemataceae s. str., however, remains uncertain. The ASR of ascospore guttulation under binary coding (present or absent) indicates that this character is fast evolving and prone to shifts. O 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eleven species of the genus Scutellinia (Pyronemataceae, Pezizales) are recognized in Korea by analysis of macro- and micro-morphological characteristics, substrates and geographical distributions. Eight species are recorded new to Korea, namely, S. ahmadiopsis, S. badio-berbis, S. colensoi, S. jilinensis, S. nigrohirtula, S. olivascens, S. setosa and S. patagonica. Based on the exceptional length of marginal hairs and tuberculate ascospore wall ornamentation, two Korean specimens occurring on wood are described as a new species. Infraspecific morphological variations among collections within S. scutellata and S. patagonica were found. These are tentatively treated as species complexes. The highly questionable occurrence of S. setosa in Asia was confirmed. The importance of characteristics of paraphyses for species delimitation is highlighted. Descriptions and taxonomic notes of the recognized species of Scutellinia are provided with a taxonomic key, illustrations and photographs of these species from Korea.
Rickiella edulis is reported from Argentina for the rst time and is documented with photographs of fresh specimens and molecular data. Previously the species was known as R. transiens (= Phillipsia transiens)and was reported from southern Brazil and Paraguay. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA shows its placement in a monophyletic family, the Sarcoscyphaceae. The relationship ofRickiella, Phillipsia and Nanoscypha however could not be resolved from phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, SSU, and LSU rDNA sequences. The excipular tissue of Rickiella is shot through with regularly spaced channels and cavities. Because of this feature, the genus Rickiella is recognized as distinct from Phillipsia. Phillipsia and Nanoscypha are morphologically distinct but diversity within Phillipsiaremains a topic for further research. A new tribe in the Sarcoscyphaceae is proposed to accommodate the genus Wynnea.
The smooth-spored species inhabiting dung, mainly of the Peziza fimeti group, were studied morphologically and through ITS sequence comparison. The results established that Peziza varia is also able to fruit on dung, clarifying a long-standing situation regarding two conflicting interpretations given in P. fimeti literature.
This paper describes the newly discovered species Ruhlandiella peregrina. Full description and illustrations of macro- and micromorphological features of the new taxon are provided. This species differs from other described species in ascus and ascospore size and in the crested and ridged ornamentation of ascospores. As is the case in two other similar species, the asci of R. peregrina do not becoming blue in iodine solutions.