Hansen, K., Laessoe, T. & Pfister, D.H., 2001. Phylogenetics of the Pezizaceae, with an emphasis on Peziza. Mycologia , 93 , pp. 958-990.Abstract

Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Pezizaceae were studied using 90 partial LSU rDNA sequences from 51 species of Peziza and 20 species from 8 additional epigeous genera of the Pezizaceae, viz. Boudiera, Iodophanus, Iodowynnea, Kimbropezia, Pachyella, Plicaria, Sarcosphaera and Scabropezia, and 5 hypogeous genera, viz. Amylascus, Cazia, Hydnotryopsis, Ruhlandiella and Tirmania. To test the monophyly of the Pezizaceae and the relationships to the genera Marcelleina and Pfistera (Pyronemataceae), 6 species from the families Ascobolaceae, Morchellaceae and Pyronemataceae were included. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of these sequences suggest that the Pezizaceae is paraphyletic, because the non-amyloid Marcelleina is nested within it. If Marcelleina were transferred to the Pezizaceae, then the family would be monophyletic. Although the Pezizaceae is traditionally characterized by amyloid asci, our results indicate that the amyloid reaction is a symplesiomorphy, which has been lost in some lineages, e.g., in those including Marcelleina and Cazia. Nodes deep in the tree could not be resolved, but 7 groups of species (I-VII) are generally well supported or present in all trees. Peziza species, which constitute the core of the family, are present in all groups except group III, confirming the non-monophyly of the genus. The analyses suggest that the other included genera of the Pezizaceae are all nested within Peziza, the placement of Iodophanus being unresolved. The morphologically distinct Peziza gerardii, which forms a clade with Marcelleina, appears to be the sister group to the rest of the Pezizaceae. Morphological features were studied and evaluated in the context of the phylogeny. Distinct types of ascus amyloid reactions were found to support different rDNA lineages, e.g., a distinct amyloid ring zone at the apex is a synapomorphy for group IV, an intense and unrestricted amyloid reaction of the apex is mostly found in group VI, and asci that are weakly or diffusely amyloid in the entire length are present in group II. Other morphological features, such as spore surface relief, guttulation, excipulum structure and pigments, while not free from homoplasy, do support the groupings. Anamorphs likewise provide clues to higher-order relationships within the Pezizaceae. Several macro- and micromorphological features, however, appear to have evolved several times independently, including ascomatal form and habit (epigeous, semihypogeous or hypogeous), spore discharge mechanisms, and spore shape. Parsimony-based optimization of character states on our phylogenetic trees suggested that transitions to truffle and truffle-like forms evolved at least three times within the Pezizaceae (in group III, V and VI). The 9 hypogeous species included are nested in lineages with epigeous pezizaceous taxa. Species with apothecia of various shapes and with forcible spore discharge are spread among all groups and the apothecium is suggested to be symplesiomorphic in the Pezizaceae. The results indicate that the apothecia forming Pezizaceae have given rise to at least 3 different forms of hypogeous ascomata without forcible spore discharge: ptychothecia, stereothecia and exothecia.

Wang, Z. & Pfister, D.H., 2001. Wenyingia, a new genus in Pezizales (Otideaceae). Mycotaxon , 79 , pp. 397-399.Abstract

A new genus Wenyingia (Otideaceae, Pezizales), based on Wenyingia sichuanensis, a new species, is reported from western Sichuan, China. An unusual membrane covering the hymenium, the structure and origin of which are discussed in this paper, distinguishes this genus from others in the family. The structure of the excipulum, size, shape and ornamentation of spores and pigmentation of the apothecia place this genus close to Tarzetta.

Hansen, K., Pfister, D.H. & Hibbett, D.S., 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Phillipsia inferred from molecular and morphological data. Mycologia , 91 , pp. 299-314.Abstract

The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA have been sequenced from 29 collections of Phillipsia, mainly from the New World. The P domingensis complex, collections with a range of colors but otherwise referable to P domingensis s.l. based on spore ornamentation, were studied. Three distinctive species of Phillipsia also were included. The sequences were analysed to infer phylogenetic relationships within Phillipnsia, using parsimony. Morphological features were studied separately, and then evaluated in the context of the ITS phylogeny. Four distinct rDNA lineages, supported by ascospore ornamentation, were identified: the P. crispata the P. domingensis, the P. olivacea and the P. carnicolor lineages. SEM photographs of the ascospores are presented. Phillipsia lutea and another yellow form were nested within the P. dominagensis complex, of those with reddish hymenial colors. Color has been emphasized in taxonomy of Phillipsia, but these results suggest that individuals with strikingly different coloration may be closely related. Levels of ITS sequence divergence in the P. domingensis lineage were low. Based on these data, and morphology as studied thus far; there is no justification for recognizing segregate species within the P. domingensis complex. The Old World collections of the P. domingensis complex were nested within the New World collections, which implies that the P. domingensis lineage is geographically widespread. Phillipsia rugospora is plated in synonymy with P. olivacea and a detailed description of this taxon is given. A lectotype is designated for P. olivacea.

Harrington, F.A., et al., 1999. Phylogenetic studies within the Pezizales. I. 18S rRNA sequence data and classification. Mycologia , 91 , pp. 41-50.Abstract

The order Pezizales has been divided into two suborders. One suborder, the Sarcoscyphineae, was originally described to include members whose asci were characterized by an unusual apical structure, the suboperculum. Disagreements as to how this structure should be defined, and indeed, whether or not it exists at all, have rendered the status of the suborder controversial. The two families within this suborder are the Sarcoscyphaceae and the Sarcosomataceae. Recent ultrastructural work demonstrates that there is an apical thickening which is restricted to the Sarcoscyphaceae. In order to test the monophyly of the suborders of the Pezizales and examine the relationships within the Sarcoscyphineae, phylogenetic analyses were carried out using DNA sequence data from the 18S rRNA gene. The strict consensus tree based upon these data shows both the Sarcoscyphineae and the Pezizineae as paraphyletic. These data suggest that the subordinal taxa currently recognized within the Pezizales should be abandoned and the taxonomy revised to reflect phylogenetic relationships. Strongly supported clades (i.e., greater than 95% bootstrap value, 1500 replicates) include: the Pezizaceae, the Morchellaceae, the Sarcoscyphaceae, the Helvellaceae, and a clade that includes the Sarcosomataceae (which is paraphyletic), and the Otidiaceae (represented only by 2 taxa). The genus Pindara, formerly placed in the Sarcoscyphaceae, is nested within the Helvellaceae, and Wynnea, assigned to the Sarcosomataceae by some authors, is positioned in the Sarcoscyphaceae.

Pfister, D.H., 1997. Castor, pollux and life histories of fungi. Mycologia , 89 , pp. 1-23.Abstract

The literature on teleomorph-anamorph connections in the Orbiliaceae and the position of the family in the Leotiales is reviewed. 18S data show that the Orbiliaceae occupies an isolated position in relationship to the other members of the Leotiales which have so far been studied. The following form genera have been studied in cultures derived from ascospores of Orbiliaceae: Anguillospora, Arthrobotrys, Dactylella, Dicranidion, Helicoon, Monacrosporium, Trinacrium and conidial types that are referred to as being Idriella-like. Characteristics of the anamorphs are discussed and illustrated. Analyses of the ITS region of several of the isolates indicate that there are several well-supported clades within the Orbiliaceae. These clades can be recognized based on the anamorphs produced. They are: an Arthrobotrys-Monacrosporium clade, a Dicranidion clade, and a Helicoon clade. Outside of these clades is a well-supported clade which contains two Arthrobotrys isolates which were derived from conidia produced on natural substrates. The taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of this information are discussed. The Orbiliaceae occur in nature on substrates that are either continually wet or on substrates that periodically dry out. Field observations indicate that those taxa which occur on wet substrates produce perennial mycelia. Some discussion is provided on the way in which scientific information is viewed and can be used.

Pfister, D.H., 1995. A Further Note on Byssonectria (Pezizales). Mycotaxon , 53 , pp. 431-432.
Pfister, D.H., 1995. The Psilopezioid Fungi .9. Pachyella Habrospora, a New Species from Brazil. Mycotaxon , 54 , pp. 393-396.
Pfister, D.H. & Liftik, M.E., 1995. Two Arthrobotrys Anamorphs from Orbilia-Auricolor. Mycologia , 87 , pp. 684-688.Abstract

Cultures derived from ascospores of two collections both referable to Orbilia auricolor produced anamorphs which were assigned to Arthrobotrys cladodes var. macroides and A. oligospora var. oligospora. These morphologically distinct isolates formed nematode-capturing hyphal networks when nematodes were present. Descriptions of the Arthrobotrys isolates are given. At least one other nematophagous hyphomycete is connected with a teleomorph that can be referred to O. auricolor suggesting that O. auricolor is not a single entity but a species complex.

Pfister, D.H., 1994. Orbilia-Fimicola, a Nematophagous Discomycete and Its Arthrobotrys Anamorph. Mycologia , 86 , pp. 451-453.Abstract

Cultures derived from a collection of Orbilia fimicola produced an Arthrobotrys anamorph. This anamorph was identified as A. superba. A discomycete agreeing closely with O. fimicola was previously reported to be associated with a culture of A. superba but no definitive connection was made. In the present study, traps were formed in the Arthrobotrys cultures when nematodes were added. The hypothesis is put forth that other Orbilia species might be predators of nematodes or invertebrates based on their ascospore and conidial form.

Pfister, D.H., 1993. Sayre, Geneva (1911-1992). Bryologist , 96 , pp. 475-478.
Pfister, D.H., 1993. A Synopsis of the North-American Species of Byssonectria (Pezizales) with Comments on the Ontogeny of Two Species. Mycologia , 85 , pp. 952-962.Abstract

Byssonectria, previously placed in the Hypocreales, is treated as a member of the Pezizales; Pseudocollema and Inermisia are considered synonyms. Four species are recognized from North America: B. terrestris, a new combination which provides the oldest traceable name for the common North American and European species; B. cartilagineum, also a new combination, is based on the type species of Pseudocollema; B. fusispora; and B. seaveri, a new species for a large-spored North American collection. The ascomata of Byssonectria cartilagineum and B. terrestris are initially cleistohymenial. They open during the mesohymenial phase. The ascogonium is a multicellular filament, one cell of which produces ascogenous hyphae. This filament becomes surrounded by vegetative hyphae which build up the body of the ascoma. Young cleistohymenial ascomata could be mistaken for perithecia; such a mistake seems to account for original placement of the type species of Byssonectria in the Hypocreales.

Pfister, D.H., 1992. A Collection of Peziza-Nivalis from California with Comments on the Nomenclature of the Snow Bank Pezizas. Mycotaxon , 43 , pp. 171-175.Abstract

The name Peziza nivalis is used for a species of Peziza collected on soil at the margins of melting snow in the Sierra Nevada of California. The species is described and extensive comments are made on the nomenclature of this and related species. A new species, Peziza heimii, is proposed to accommodate a species similar to P. nivalis but with larger ascospores.

Pfister, D.H., 1992. A Note on Some Drawings of Fungi by Cecilia Jane Berkeley in the Farlow Reference Library. Mycologia , 84 , pp. 911-912.
Pfister, D.H., 1991. A Redescription of Peziza-Bananicola and Comments on Some Similar Tropical Species. Mycotaxon , 41 , pp. 505-507.
Pfister, D.H. & Halling, R.E., 1989. Ascosparassis-Heinricheri from Venezuela - an Extended Distribution. Mycotaxon , 35 , pp. 283-285.
Pfister, D.H., 1988. A Note on Grelet Les Discomycetes De France. Mycotaxon , 33 , pp. 97-100.
Pfister, D.H., 1988. Paratrichophaea (Pezizales) in North-America. Mycologia , 80 , pp. 515-519. pfister_paratrichophaea.pdf
Pfister, D.H., 1988. R. Gordon Wasson, 1898-1986. Mycologia , 80 , pp. 11-13.
Pfister, D.H. & Boise, J.R., 1987. A Bibliographic and Nomenclatural Account of Holmskjold,Theodor Publications on Fungi. Nova Hedwigia , 45 , pp. 487-500.
Pfister, D.H., 1987. Peziza-Phyllogena - an Older Name for Peziza-Badioconfusa. Mycologia , 79 , pp. 634-634.