The literature on teleomorph-anamorph connections in the Orbiliaceae and the position of the family in the Leotiales is reviewed. 18S data show that the Orbiliaceae occupies an isolated position in relationship to the other members of the Leotiales which have so far been studied. The following form genera have been studied in cultures derived from ascospores of Orbiliaceae: Anguillospora, Arthrobotrys, Dactylella, Dicranidion, Helicoon, Monacrosporium, Trinacrium and conidial types that are referred to as being Idriella-like. Characteristics of the anamorphs are discussed and illustrated. Analyses of the ITS region of several of the isolates indicate that there are several well-supported clades within the Orbiliaceae. These clades can be recognized based on the anamorphs produced. They are: an Arthrobotrys-Monacrosporium clade, a Dicranidion clade, and a Helicoon clade. Outside of these clades is a well-supported clade which contains two Arthrobotrys isolates which were derived from conidia produced on natural substrates. The taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of this information are discussed. The Orbiliaceae occur in nature on substrates that are either continually wet or on substrates that periodically dry out. Field observations indicate that those taxa which occur on wet substrates produce perennial mycelia. Some discussion is provided on the way in which scientific information is viewed and can be used.
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