Parasola is a genus of small, veil-less coprinoid mushrooms in the family Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales). The genus is not well documented in Asia, specifically in Pakistan. In this study we describe two new species Parasola glabra and P. pseudolactea from Pakistan, based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogeny based on three DNA regions: nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S) and translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF1α) show that the new taxa are clustered in a clade formed by the members of section Parasola of genus Parasola. Parasola glabra with grayish pileus, slightly depressed pileal disc, lamellae separated from the stipe by pseudocollarium, basidiospores 14.5–16.5 × 9.5–11.5 × 8.0–10.5 µm, in front view broadly ovoid to oblong, some with rhomboidal outline, in side view ellipsoid, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diameter. Parasola pseudolactea with yellowish brown to dull brown pileus, disc indistinctly umbonate, lamellae free, pseudocollarium absent, basidiospores 13.5–14.5 × 10.5–12.0 × 9.5–10.5 µm, in face view rounded triangular to heart shaped, rarely ovoid to subglobose, in side view ellipsoid to oblong, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diam. In addition to these new species, P. auricoma and P.lilatincta were also studied. Morphological descriptions for the new species and comparison with known Parasola species are provided. Our observations highlight the diversity of Parasola in northern Pakistan and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region’s fungi.
The genus Otidea was recently monographed and studied phylogenetically, but knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Otidea species in China is fragmentary. In this study, collections from China were examined morphologically and included in phylogenetic analyses. Using LSU, TEF1-α, and RPB2 new species were placed within previously recognized clades in the genus. The results agree with both Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) and genetic divergence as previously reported. Three new species, Otidea hanseniae, Otidea korfii and Otidea purpureogrisea are recognized based on phylogenetic reconstruction using ITS, LSU, TEF1- α and RPB2. Comments on some incompletely known species are added. With the discovery of these three new species, the genus Otidea in China proves to be more diverse than previously recognized.
The large genus Leucoagaricus (Basidiomycota) is poorly studied in Pakistan, where the northern parts of the country are considered hotspots for biodiversity. Based on morphological and molecular data, five new species are described: Leucoagaricus badius, L. lahorensiformis, L. pakistaniensis, L. sultanii and L. umbonatus. Descriptions and illustrations are given for the new taxa. A phylogeny based on morphology and four DNA regions, including the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and D1-D2 domains of the 28S gene of the nuc rDNA), the gene for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF1-α), show that the new taxa are clustered in a clade representing Leucoagaricus section Rubrotincti subgenus Sericeomyces.
Collections of a species referred to Sarcosomataceae (Pezizomycetes) from eastern North America were studied both morphologically and using nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and approximately 800 bp from the 5' region of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) to construct a phylogeny. The analyses indicate that these collections are Donadinia seaveri, a species previously known only from Bermuda. Because the associated tree, Juniperus bermudiana, has declined as a result of insect attack, it was thought that D. seaveri might be extinct. This work indicates that it is not extinct but is present in eastern North America. The species is described, new distributional records are given, and its association with the genus Juniperus is discussed.
Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. In Europe, members of the Nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus Arthrorhynchus. We carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fungus-bat fly associations of the genus in central Europe (Hungary, Romania).
A species of Pseudotricharina, similar in sequence and morphology to the type species P. intermedia, is described from a soil bank in a Nothofagus forest of the Andes Mountains of Argentina. This is only the second species of Pseudotricharina to be described and the first known from the Southern Hemisphere.
Heterobasidion amyloideopsis sp. nov., a new poroid wood-inhabiting species from Pakistan, is introduced based on a combination of molecular evidence and morphological characteristics. We generated sequences from the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU), the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), focusing on two specimens from Pakistan. We performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and bayesian inference methods on two datasets (RPB1+RPB2 and ITS+nLSU+RPB1+RPB2). Both analyses supported the existence of the new species and showed that it formed a monophyletic group within the H. insulare complex as a sister to H. amyloideum. In addition to assessing the origin and divergence of this new species, we focused on the RPB1+RPB2 dataset to perform maximum likelihood based estimation and Bayesian binary analyses. Heterobasidion amyloideopsis is characterized by an annual habit, pileate basidiomata with a rust colored pileal surface, white, obtuse margin, a dimitic hyphal system with simple septate generative hyphae in the trama and clamp connections present on the contextual hyphae, amyloid skeletal hyphae and broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, fairly thick-walled, and asperulate basidiospores.
A new species, Laboulbenia camerunensis, parasitic on Curculio sp. from Cameroon, is described from a historical slide prepared by Roland Thaxter. It is the seventh species to be described from the family Curculionidae worldwide and the first from the
African continent. The species is recognized by the characteristic outer appendage. The latter consists of two superimposed hyaline cells, separated by a black constricted septum, the suprabasal cell giving rise to two branches, the inner of which is simple and hyaline, and the outer tinged with brown. A second blackish constricted septum is found at the base of this outermost branch. Description, illustrations, and comparison to other species are given.
Charles Darwin's famous voyage on the HMS Beagle led him around the world on a collecting journey that culminated in his theory of evolution. In 1835, the Beagle traveled to the island of Chiloé, and there, Darwin discovered and sent potatoes back to England. Darwin's interest in the potato and potato late blight spanned four decades. He used the potato to investigate questions of what a species is, understand its ravages by a plant pathogen, and investigate ideas on clonal versus sexual reproduction on species fitness. Darwin's letters reveal his thoughts on free trade, population growth and food security during the Irish famine. Darwin was involved in the first research to find resistance to late blight and personally funded a breeding program in Ireland. Here, we discuss Darwin's studies on potato late blight and its relevance today in studies of global migrations of the pathogen and development of durable resistance.