Byssonectria, previously placed in the Hypocreales, is treated as a member of the Pezizales; Pseudocollema and Inermisia are considered synonyms. Four species are recognized from North America: B. terrestris, a new combination which provides the oldest traceable name for the common North American and European species; B. cartilagineum, also a new combination, is based on the type species of Pseudocollema; B. fusispora; and B. seaveri, a new species for a large-spored North American collection. The ascomata of Byssonectria cartilagineum and B. terrestris are initially cleistohymenial. They open during the mesohymenial phase. The ascogonium is a multicellular filament, one cell of which produces ascogenous hyphae. This filament becomes surrounded by vegetative hyphae which build up the body of the ascoma. Young cleistohymenial ascomata could be mistaken for perithecia; such a mistake seems to account for original placement of the type species of Byssonectria in the Hypocreales.
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