Publications

2017
2017. The Asian bambusicolous genus Myriodiscus connects with the genus Tympanis, the North American-European tree pathogen.Abstract
Presented at the 2nd Mediterranean Mycological Congress Platres / Cyprus 1-3 December 2017
A survey of fungi in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique
J.M., K., et al., 2017. A survey of fungi in Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique.Abstract

Gorongosa National Park (GNP) was a frequent battleground during the Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992) and was left unprotected for a decade after cessation of hostilities. In that time, the Park’s fauna was decimated. Today, restoration of the wildlife and tourist infrastructure is advancing apace with support from the Gregory C. Carr Foundation. The establishment of the E. O. Wilson Biodiversity Laboratory in the Park, modeled along the lines of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute on Barro
Colorado Island in Panama, provided an attractive research destination.

We conducted a fungal survey of GNP in June-July of 2016. Our survey was conducted in the beginning of the dry season and our collections represent species in fruit during a season that is not often sampled. We collected voucher specimens at random localities and habitats within the Park, focusing on discomycetes, polypores and anamorphic fungi. Despite a severe drought that had affected the region that year, we made
over 500 collections.

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Pfister, D.H. & LoBuglio, K.F., 2017. Lost and found: the Bermudan Donadinia seaveri found in North America, with comments on its juniper associates. Mycologia , 110 (1) , pp. 215-221.Abstract

Collections of a species referred to Sarcosomataceae (Pezizomycetes) from eastern North America were studied both morphologically and using nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and approximately 800 bp from the 5' region of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) to construct a phylogeny. The analyses indicate that these collections are Donadinia seaveri, a species previously known only from Bermuda. Because the associated tree, Juniperus bermudiana, has declined as a result of insect attack, it was thought that D. seaveri might be extinct. This work indicates that it is not extinct but is present in eastern North America. The species is described, new distributional records are given, and its association with the genus Juniperus is discussed.

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Iturriaga, T., LoBuglio, K.F. & Pfister, D.H., 2017. Bulgariella pulla, a Leotiomycete of uncertain placement, with an uncommon type of ascus opening. Mycologia , 109 (6) , pp. 900-911.Abstract
Bulgariella pulla (Leotiomycetes) is redescribed with the addition of characters of the ascus, spores, and habitat that were previously unconsidered. The ascus dehiscence mechanism in Bulgariella is unusual among Leotiomycetes. In this genus, asci lack a pore and open by splitting to form valves. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and the 18S and 28S nuc rRNA genes determined that Bulgariella belongs within Leotiomycetes but without conclusive assignment to an order or family. A comparison of the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 plus the 5.8S gene (ITS) determined that Bulgariella isolates from the USA, Norway, and Sweden had 100% sequence similarity, and an isolate from Chile had 99.3% similarity with these isolates. These results support the proposition that these collections represent a single species, B. pulla. Bulgariella sphaerospora, a more recently described species, is confirmed as conspecific with B. pulla.
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Haelewaters, D., et al., 2017. Parasites of parasites of bats: Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycota) on bat flies (Dipera: Nycteribiidae) in central Europe. Parasites & Vectors , 10 (96) , pp. 1-14.Abstract
Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. In Europe, members of the Nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus Arthrorhynchus. We carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fungus-bat fly associations of the genus in central Europe (Hungary, Romania).
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Pfister, D.H., et al., 2017. Richard Paul Korf (1925 - 2016). Mycologia , 109 (3) , pp. 529-534.Abstract
"With poetry, the tune is in the words themselves-and once you begin to hear it, it will stay with you." Richard P. Korf, notes to his narration of John Brown's Body.
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Healy, R., et al., 2017. Pseudotricharina lanigera (Pezizales), a new species from the Patagonian region of Argentina. Ascomycete , 9 (4) , pp. 135-138.Abstract
A species of Pseudotricharina, similar in sequence and morphology to the type species P. intermedia, is described from a soil bank in a Nothofagus forest of the Andes Mountains of Argentina. This is only the second species of Pseudotricharina to be described and the first known from the Southern Hemisphere.
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Zhao, C.-L., et al., 2017. Heterobasidion amyloideopsis sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Russulates) evidenced by morphological characteristics and phylogenic analysis. Phytotaxa , 317 (3) , pp. 199-210.Abstract
Heterobasidion amyloideopsis sp. nov., a new poroid wood-inhabiting species from Pakistan, is introduced based on a combination of molecular evidence and morphological characteristics. We generated sequences from the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU), the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), focusing on two specimens from Pakistan. We performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and bayesian inference methods on two datasets (RPB1+RPB2 and ITS+nLSU+RPB1+RPB2). Both analyses supported the existence of the new species and showed that it formed a monophyletic group within the H. insulare complex as a sister to H. amyloideum. In addition to assessing the origin and divergence of this new species, we focused on the RPB1+RPB2 dataset to perform maximum likelihood based estimation and Bayesian binary analyses. Heterobasidion amyloideopsis is characterized by an annual habit, pileate basidiomata with a rust colored pileal surface, white, obtuse margin, a dimitic hyphal system with simple septate generative hyphae in the trama and clamp connections present on the contextual hyphae, amyloid skeletal hyphae and broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, fairly thick-walled, and asperulate basidiospores.
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Truong, C., et al., 2017. How to know the fungi: combining field inventories and DNA-barcoding to document fungal diversity. New Phytologist , 214 , pp. 913-919. PDF
Kumar, L.M., et al., 2017. A molecular and morphological re-examination of the generic limits of truffles in the tarzetta-geopyxis lineage - Densocarapa, Hydnocystis and Paurocotylis. Fungal Biology , pp. 1-21.Abstract

Truffle species within the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage share smooth, globose, hyaline spores, but differ in the amount of convolution of hymenia in ascomata. The relation- ships among truffle species in this lineage have historically been confused. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA from recently collected members of the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage from Asia, Austral Asia, North America, and South America prompted a reinvestigation of species and generic limits in the truffle genera Hydnocystis, Paurocotylis, and Stephensia. Our analyses support emendations of Hydnocystis and Pauro- cotylis, abandonment of Stephensia and the resurrection of the genus Densocarpa. Nomen- clatural changes include the transfer of Stephensia bombycina to Hydnocystis, the transfer of Hydnocystis singeri and Stephensia bynumii to Paurocotylis, the reinstatement of Denso- carpa for Stephensia shanori and transfer of Stephensia crocea to Densocarpa. This is the first detection of the genus Paurocotylis in the Americas. We describe three new species, Hyd- nocystis transitoria from North America, Paurocotylis patagonica from South America, andPaurocotylis watlingii from Australia. Our work highlights the unexplored diversity, mor- phological plasticity, and remaining taxonomic problems among truffles in the /tarzetta- geopyxis lineage.

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2016
Wang, T.W., Haelewaters, D. & Pfister, D.H., 2016. Long-hidden in Thaxter’s treasure trove: Laboulbenia camerunensis sp. nov. parasitic on African Curculionidae. Mycotaxon , 131 , pp. 613-619.Abstract

A new species, Laboulbenia camerunensis, parasitic on Curculio sp. from Cameroon, is described from a historical slide prepared by Roland Thaxter. It is the seventh species to be described from the family Curculionidae worldwide and the first from the

African continent. The species is recognized by the characteristic outer appendage. The latter consists of two superimposed hyaline cells, separated by a black constricted septum, the suprabasal cell giving rise to two branches, the inner of which is simple and hyaline, and the outer tinged with brown. A second blackish constricted septum is found at the base of this outermost branch. Description, illustrations, and comparison to other species are given.

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Healy, R., et al., 2016. Competing sexual-asexual generic names of Peziomycetes and recommendations for use. IMA Fungus , 7 (2) , pp. 285-288.Abstract
Following the change that eliminated dual naming of sexual and asexual morphs of fungi, generic names of Pezizomycetes have been evaluated to determine which of the competing names should be recommended for use. Evaluation is based on congruence of type species to determine if the names are congeneric and which name is most commonly cited as well as priority. In the Pezizomycetes six pairs of generic names were determined to compete. In all cases the older name, representing the sexual morph, is recommended for use, specifically Caloscypha rather than GeniculodendronDesmazierella rather than VerticicladiumMiladina rather than ActinosporellaMorchella rather than CostantinellaSarcoscypha rather than Molliardiomyces, and Trichophaea rather than Dichobotrys.
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Ristiaino, J.B. & Pfister, D.H., 2016. What a Painfully Interesting Subject: Charles Darwin Studies of Potato Late Blight. BioScience , 66 (12) , pp. 1035-1045.Abstract

Charles Darwin's famous voyage on the HMS Beagle led him around the world on a collecting journey that culminated in his theory of evolution. In 1835, the Beagle traveled to the island of Chiloé, and there, Darwin discovered and sent potatoes back to England. Darwin's interest in the potato and potato late blight spanned four decades. He used the potato to investigate questions of what a species is, understand its ravages by a plant pathogen, and investigate ideas on clonal versus sexual reproduction on species fitness. Darwin's letters reveal his thoughts on free trade, population growth and food security during the Irish famine. Darwin was involved in the first research to find resistance to late blight and personally funded a breeding program in Ireland. Here, we discuss Darwin's studies on potato late blight and its relevance today in studies of global migrations of the pathogen and development of durable resistance.

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Pfister, D.H., 2016. William Gilson Farlow on Campobello Island: a brief account of his trips in 1898 and 1902. PDF
Pfister, D., 2016. Fungi and Forests: Shaping Landscapes, Cuisine and Commerce. ReVista , 16 (1) , pp. 14-16. PDF
Rossi, W., Haelewaters, D. & Pfister, D.H., 2016. Fireworks under the microscope: a spectacular new species of Zodiomyces from the Thaxter collection. Mycologia , 108 (4) , pp. 709-715.Abstract
A new species of Zodiomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is described, Z. rhizophorus, parasitic on a hydrophilid beetle (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) from Trinidad. This species was discovered during the examination of the slides of Laboulbeniales made by Roland Thaxter. It is characterized by numerous long, slender, multicellular and multiseriate outgrowths at the base of the receptacle. Thaxter's outstanding illustrations have set a standard in the field of mycology; we provide a review of the methods he employed in the preparation of these illustrations.
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Adamcik, S., et al., 2016. A molecular analysis reveals hidden species diversity within the current concept of Russula maculata (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota). Phytotaxia , 270 (2) , pp. 71-88.Abstract
The current generally accepted concept of Russula maculata defines the species by yellow-brownish spots on the basidi-omata, an acrid taste, a yellow spore print and a red pileus. This concept was tested using collections originating from various geographical areas mainly in Europe. Analyses of the ITS region suggested that there were three species within this broad concept. One of them, R. maculata, was identified based on the sequence from the epitype. Two other species, R. nympharum and R. sp., are described here as newly identified species. The European species R. maculata and R. nympharum grow in deciduous forests, are similar in their field aspect and are distinctly different in micro-morphological characteristics of spores, pleurocystidia and pileipellis. An Asian species, R. sp., is associated with pine and has smaller basidiomata and spores. These three species form the R. maculata complex and represent the sister clade to the R. globispora complex. This clade consists of species also characterized by a yellow-brownish context discolouration but with a different type of spore ornamentation. All of the other tested species had an acrid taste and yellow spore print but did not have a conspicuous yellow-brownish context discolouration and were placed in various unrelated clades.
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Pfister, D.H., LoBuglio, K.F. & Kristiansen, R., 2016. Species of Peziza s. str. on water-soaked wood with special reference to a new species, P. nordica, from central Norway. Sydowia , 68 , pp. 173-185.Abstract
Peziza oliviae, P. lohjaoensis, P. montirivicola and a new species from Norway form a well-supported clade within the Peziza s. str. group based on study of the internal transcribed spacer + 5.8S rRNA gene, large subunit rRNA gene and the 6–7 region of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II gene. Like P. oliviae and P. montirivicola, the new species, P. nordica, is distinctly stipi­tate and occurs on wood that has been inundated by fresh water. These species also have paraphyses with yellow vacuolar inclu­sions. They fruit early in the season or at high elevations and are presumed to be saprobic. A discussion of application of the name Peziza is given.
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Friedman, W.E., et al., 2016. Developing an Exemplary Collection: A Vision for the Next Century at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Arnoldia , 73 (3) , pp. 2-18. PDF
Healy, R.A., et al., 2016. Mycorrhizal detection of native and non-native truffles in a historic arboretum and the discovery of a new North American species, Tuber arnoldianum sp. nov. Mycorrhiza , pp. 1-12.Abstract
During a study comparing the ectomycorrhizal root communities in a native forest with those at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts (USA), the European species Tuber borchii was detected on the roots of a native red oak in the arboretum over two successive years. Since T. borchii is an economically important edible truffle native to Europe, we conducted a search of other roots in the arboretum to determine the extent of colonization. We also wanted to determine whether other non-native Tuber species had been inadvertently introduced into this 140-year-old Arboretum because many trees were imported into the site with intact soil and roots prior to the 1921 USDA ban on these horticultural practices in the USA. While T. borchii was not found on other trees, seven other native and exotic Tuber species were detected. Among the North American Tuber species detected from ectomycorrhizae, we also collected ascomata of a previously unknown species described here as Tuber arnoldianum. This new species was found colonizing both native and non-native tree roots. Other ectomycorrhizal taxa that were detected included basidiomycetes in the genera Amanita, Russula, Tomentella, and ascomycetes belonging to Pachyphlodes, Helvella, Genea, and Trichophaea. We clarify the phylogenetic relationships of each of the Tuber species detected in this study, and we discuss their distribution on both native and non-native host trees.
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