Following the change that eliminated dual naming of sexual and asexual morphs of fungi, generic names of Pezizomycetes have been evaluated to determine which of the competing names should be recommended for use. Evaluation is based on congruence of type species to determine if the names are congeneric and which name is most commonly cited as well as priority. In the Pezizomycetes six pairs of generic names were determined to compete. In all cases the older name, representing the sexual morph, is recommended for use, specifically Caloscypha rather than Geniculodendron, Desmazierella rather than Verticicladium, Miladina rather than Actinosporella, Morchella rather than Costantinella, Sarcoscypha rather than Molliardiomyces, and Trichophaea rather than Dichobotrys.
Charles Darwin's famous voyage on the HMS Beagle led him around the world on a collecting journey that culminated in his theory of evolution. In 1835, the Beagle traveled to the island of Chiloé, and there, Darwin discovered and sent potatoes back to England. Darwin's interest in the potato and potato late blight spanned four decades. He used the potato to investigate questions of what a species is, understand its ravages by a plant pathogen, and investigate ideas on clonal versus sexual reproduction on species fitness. Darwin's letters reveal his thoughts on free trade, population growth and food security during the Irish famine. Darwin was involved in the first research to find resistance to late blight and personally funded a breeding program in Ireland. Here, we discuss Darwin's studies on potato late blight and its relevance today in studies of global migrations of the pathogen and development of durable resistance.
A new species of Zodiomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is described, Z. rhizophorus, parasitic on a hydrophilid beetle (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) from Trinidad. This species was discovered during the examination of the slides of Laboulbeniales made by Roland Thaxter. It is characterized by numerous long, slender, multicellular and multiseriate outgrowths at the base of the receptacle. Thaxter's outstanding illustrations have set a standard in the field of mycology; we provide a review of the methods he employed in the preparation of these illustrations.
The current generally accepted concept of Russula maculata defines the species by yellow-brownish spots on the basidi-omata, an acrid taste, a yellow spore print and a red pileus. This concept was tested using collections originating from various geographical areas mainly in Europe. Analyses of the ITS region suggested that there were three species within this broad concept. One of them, R. maculata, was identified based on the sequence from the epitype. Two other species, R. nympharum and R. sp., are described here as newly identified species. The European species R. maculata and R. nympharum grow in deciduous forests, are similar in their field aspect and are distinctly different in micro-morphological characteristics of spores, pleurocystidia and pileipellis. An Asian species, R. sp., is associated with pine and has smaller basidiomata and spores. These three species form the R. maculata complex and represent the sister clade to the R. globispora complex. This clade consists of species also characterized by a yellow-brownish context discolouration but with a different type of spore ornamentation. All of the other tested species had an acrid taste and yellow spore print but did not have a conspicuous yellow-brownish context discolouration and were placed in various unrelated clades.
Peziza oliviae, P. lohjaoensis, P. montirivicola and a new species from Norway form a well-supported clade within the Peziza s. str. group based on study of the internal transcribed spacer + 5.8S rRNA gene, large subunit rRNA gene and the 6–7 region of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II gene. Like P. oliviae and P. montirivicola, the new species, P. nordica, is distinctly stipitate and occurs on wood that has been inundated by fresh water. These species also have paraphyses with yellow vacuolar inclusions. They fruit early in the season or at high elevations and are presumed to be saprobic. A discussion of application of the name Peziza is given.
During a study comparing the ectomycorrhizal root communities in a native forest with those at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts (USA), the European species Tuber borchii was detected on the roots of a native red oak in the arboretum over two successive years. Since T. borchii is an economically important edible truffle native to Europe, we conducted a search of other roots in the arboretum to determine the extent of colonization. We also wanted to determine whether other non-native Tuber species had been inadvertently introduced into this 140-year-old Arboretum because many trees were imported into the site with intact soil and roots prior to the 1921 USDA ban on these horticultural practices in the USA. While T. borchii was not found on other trees, seven other native and exotic Tuber species were detected. Among the North American Tuber species detected from ectomycorrhizae, we also collected ascomata of a previously unknown species described here as Tuber arnoldianum. This new species was found colonizing both native and non-native tree roots. Other ectomycorrhizal taxa that were detected included basidiomycetes in the genera Amanita, Russula, Tomentella, and ascomycetes belonging to Pachyphlodes, Helvella, Genea, and Trichophaea. We clarify the phylogenetic relationships of each of the Tuber species detected in this study, and we discuss their distribution on both native and non-native host trees.
Truncospora wisconsinensis sp. nov., a new poroid wood-inhabiting species, is proposed based on a combination of molecu- lar and morphological data. this species demonstrates a unique combination of characters including: annual habit; pileate basidiomata with a white pileus and pore surface; a dimitic hyphal system with non- to slightly dextrinoid, cyanophilous skeletal hyphae; and ellipsoid, truncate, slightly thick-walled, strongly dextrinoid basidiospores. Phylogenetic analyses us- ing ItS and partial tef1-α support the position of this new species as a sister clade of T. ohiensis.
Hesperomyces virescens is a fungal ectoparasite (Laboulbeniales) that infects adult ladybirds. Research has recently focused on this parasite due to the discovery of its prevalence on the globally invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis and for its potential use in studies of co-evolution and pathogen spread. We collected adults from ten species of ladybirds in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, and screened for the presence of H. virescens. Infections with H. virescens were found in the samples of two species, H. axyridis and the native Cheilomenes propinqua. This marks the first record of H. virescens on H. axyridis from the African continent and the first record on Cheilomenes worldwide.
The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H. axyridis within many countries has been met with considerable trepidation. It is a generalist top predator, able to thrive in many habitats and across wide climatic conditions. It poses a threat to biodiversity, particularly aphidophagous insects, through competition and predation, and in many countries adverse effects have been reported on other species, particularly coccinellids. However, the patterns are not consistent around the world and seem to be affected by many factors including landscape and climate. Research on H. axyridis has provided detailed insights into invasion biology from broad patterns and processes to approaches in surveillance and monitoring. An impressive number of studies on this alien species have provided mechanistic evidence alongside models explaining large-scale patterns and processes. The involvement of citizens in monitoring this species in a number of countries around the world is inspiring and has provided data on scales that would be otherwise unachievable. Harmonia axyridis has successfully been used as a model invasive alien species and has been the inspiration for global collaborations at various scales. There is considerable scope to expand the research and associated collaborations, particularly to increase the breadth of parallel studies conducted in the native and invaded regions. Indeed a qualitative comparison of biological traits across the native and invaded range suggests that there are differences which ultimately could influence the population dynamics of this invader. Here we provide an overview of the invasion history and ecology of H. axyridis globally with consideration of future research perspectives. We reflect broadly on the contributions of such research to our understanding of invasion biology while also informing policy and people.
Rommelaarsia avovirens gen. et sp. nov. is proposed. This inoperculate discomycete is known only from two collections in Western Europe, fruiting in spring on dead stems of Equisetum arvensis. An a - liation with the family Hyaloscyphaceae is suggested by the presence of short hairs on the super cially gro- wing apothecium. The species is associated with an unusual, likewise unknown asexual state with large multiguttulate, holoblastic phragmoconidia formed in sporodochia. Phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA show that Rommelaarsia has an uncertain position within the Helotiales. Our analyses consistently show a close relationship to Cistella and Psilachnum, but there is no support for this placement. Bayesian analysis moderately supports the Cistella + Psilachnum+ Rommelaarsia clade, which hints at the placement of Rommelaarsia within Hyaloscyphaceae. This agrees with the morphological data.
Cookeina kor i (Ascomycetes, Pezizales, Sarcoscyphaceae) is described from the Philippines. Ascospores are smooth, smaller than Cookeina tricholoma (Mont.) Kuntze, and hairs are more exuous than in C. tricholoma. Analyses of the ITS region shows it to be close to Cookeina tricholoma and Cookeina sinensisZ. Wang.
Richard Korf is an important gure in the study of discomycetes. His contribution as teacher and scholar in relationship to Boudier’s masterwork, the Icones Mycologicae, is commented upon particularly in regard to the classi cations used for the Pezizaceae. Although it has been common practice to recognize a single genus Peziza for most of the species in the Pezizaceae, molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Peziza is diverse and is not monophyletic. Boudier’s classi cation shows a more accurate pic- ture of the diversity within the family than later classi cations. Comments on the Icones and Cooke’s Myco- graphia are included as they relate to graduate training and opportunities o ered by Richard Korf in his long career as a teacher.
Laboulbeniales is one of the most peculiar oders of Ascomycota. These fungi are characterized by an ectoparasitic life-style on arthropods, determinate growth, lack of an asexual stage, high species richness, and intractability to culture. The order Laboulbeniales, sister to Pyxidiophorales, has only recently been assigned a separate class, the Laboulbeniomycetes, based on very fewribosomal DNA sequences. So far, DNA isolations and PCR ampli cations have proven dif cult. Here,we provide details of isolation techniques and the application of commercially available kits that enableef cient and reliable genetic analyses of these fungi. We provide 43 newly generated Laboulbenialesribosomal DNA sequences, among which are the rst published sequences for species in the generaGloeandromyces, Herpomyces, Laboulbenia, Monoicomyces, and Polyandromyces. DNA extractions were possible using from 1 to 30 thalli from hosts preserved in ethanol (70–100 %). In two cases, we successfully isolated DNA from thalli on dried insect collections. Laboulbeniales molecular systematics could be substantially enhanced through these improved methods by allowing more complete sampling of both taxa and gene regions.
This paper, based on a recent comprehensive sampling of insects, is the rstreport of Laboulbeniales from the New England region since the 1930s. We present 7 new records of laboulbenialean parasites on Staphylinidae (rove beetles) and Coccinellidae (lady beetles) from the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. These are Clonophoro- myces nipponicus Terada & I.I. Tav., Hesperomyces virescens Thaxt., Ilyomyces cf. maireiF. Picard, Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxt., Peyritschiella protea Thaxt., Stichomyces conoso- matis Thaxt., and Teratomyces actobii Thaxt. One of these parasite species, C. nipponicus, has not been found previously outside of its type locality in Japan. Examination of Roland Thaxter’s 1891–1932 slides led to the designation of lectotypes for L. philonthi, P. protea,S. conosomatis, and T. actobii. The following synonymy is established: Teratomyces brevi- caulis Thaxt. = T. actobii. In addition, we discovered new localities for H. virescens (from Canada, Cuba, Guatemala, and Japan) and L. philonthi (from Canada, Grenada, Panama, Trinidad, and Venezuela).
A new species of the genus Strobiloscypha, S. cupressina, is described from collections made in Montenegro. is species, like the other species in the genus, S. keliae, occurs on rotting leaves and cones of Cupressaceae. e genus had been assigned to the Sarcosomataceae but molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that it falls outside that family with no resolved placement elsewhere. Morphologically it is perhaps most close to theChorioactidaceae.