Publications

2016
Zhao, C.-L., Xu, F. & Pfister, D.H., 2016. Morphological and molecular identification of a new species of Truncospora (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) in North America. Phytotaxa , 257 (1) , pp. 89-97.Abstract

Truncospora wisconsinensis sp. nov., a new poroid wood-inhabiting species, is proposed based on a combination of molecu- lar and morphological data. this species demonstrates a unique combination of characters including: annual habit; pileate basidiomata with a white pileus and pore surface; a dimitic hyphal system with non- to slightly dextrinoid, cyanophilous skeletal hyphae; and ellipsoid, truncate, slightly thick-walled, strongly dextrinoid basidiospores. Phylogenetic analyses us- ing ItS and partial tef1-α support the position of this new species as a sister clade of T. ohiensis.

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Haelewaters, D., Minnaar, I.A. & Clusella-Trullas, S., 2016. First finding of the parasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens (Laboulbeniales) on native and invasive ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in South Africa. Parasite , 23 (5).Abstract

Hesperomyces virescens is a fungal ectoparasite (Laboulbeniales) that infects adult ladybirds. Research has recently focused on this parasite due to the discovery of its prevalence on the globally invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis and for its potential use in studies of co-evolution and pathogen spread. We collected adults from ten species of ladybirds in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, and screened for the presence of H. virescens. Infections with H. virescens were found in the samples of two species, H. axyridis and the native Cheilomenes propinqua. This marks the first record of H. virescens on H. axyridis from the African continent and the first record on Cheilomenes worldwide.

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Roy, H.E., et al., 2016. The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis: global perspectives on invasion history and ecology. Biological Invasions , 18 (4) , pp. 997-1044.Abstract

The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is native to Asia but has been intentionally introduced to many countries as a biological control agent of pest insects. In numerous countries, however, it has been introduced unintentionally. The dramatic spread of H. axyridis within many countries has been met with considerable trepidation. It is a generalist top predator, able to thrive in many habitats and across wide climatic conditions. It poses a threat to biodiversity, particularly aphidophagous insects, through competition and predation, and in many countries adverse effects have been reported on other species, particularly coccinellids. However, the patterns are not consistent around the world and seem to be affected by many factors including landscape and climate. Research on H. axyridis has provided detailed insights into invasion biology from broad patterns and processes to approaches in surveillance and monitoring. An impressive number of studies on this alien species have provided mechanistic evidence alongside models explaining large-scale patterns and processes. The involvement of citizens in monitoring this species in a number of countries around the world is inspiring and has provided data on scales that would be otherwise unachievable. Harmonia axyridis has successfully been used as a model invasive alien species and has been the inspiration for global collaborations at various scales. There is considerable scope to expand the research and associated collaborations, particularly to increase the breadth of parallel studies conducted in the native and invaded regions. Indeed a qualitative comparison of biological traits across the native and invaded range suggests that there are differences which ultimately could influence the population dynamics of this invader. Here we provide an overview of the invasion history and ecology of H. axyridis globally with consideration of future research perspectives. We reflect broadly on the contributions of such research to our understanding of invasion biology while also informing policy and people.

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Wang, T.W., et al., 2016. Farlow Herbarium cockroach hosts new record of Laboulbeniales for North America. Rhodora , 118 (973). PDF
2015
Baral, H.O. & Haelewaters, D., 2015. Rommelaarsia flavovirens gen. et sp. nov. (Helotiales), a new discomycete on Equisetum with a peculiar asexual state. Ascomycete.org , 7 (6) , pp. 321-330.Abstract

Rommelaarsia avovirens gen. et sp. nov. is proposed. This inoperculate discomycete is known only from two collections in Western Europe, fruiting in spring on dead stems of Equisetum arvensis. An a - liation with the family Hyaloscyphaceae is suggested by the presence of short hairs on the super cially gro- wing apothecium. The species is associated with an unusual, likewise unknown asexual state with large multiguttulate, holoblastic phragmoconidia formed in sporodochia. Phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA show that Rommelaarsia has an uncertain position within the Helotiales. Our analyses consistently show a close relationship to Cistella and Psilachnum, but there is no support for this placement. Bayesian analysis moderately supports the Cistella + Psilachnum+ Rommelaarsia clade, which hints at the placement of Rommelaarsia within Hyaloscyphaceae. This agrees with the morphological data.

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Iturriaga, T., Xu, F. & Pfister, D.H., 2015. Cookeina korfii, a new species hidden in Cookeina tricholoma. Ascomycete.org , 7 (6) , pp. 331-335.Abstract

Cookeina kor i (Ascomycetes, Pezizales, Sarcoscyphaceae) is described from the Philippines. Ascospores are smooth, smaller than Cookeina tricholoma (Mont.) Kuntze, and hairs are more exuous than in C. tricholoma. Analyses of the ITS region shows it to be close to Cookeina tricholoma and Cookeina sinensisZ. Wang.

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Pfister, D.H., 2015. Pezizacea taxonomy and classification: Boudier, Cooke and Korf. Ascomycete.org , 7 (6) , pp. 239-244.Abstract

Richard Korf is an important gure in the study of discomycetes. His contribution as teacher and scholar in relationship to Boudier’s masterwork, the Icones Mycologicae, is commented upon particularly in regard to the classi cations used for the Pezizaceae. Although it has been common practice to recognize a single genus Peziza for most of the species in the Pezizaceae, molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Peziza is diverse and is not monophyletic. Boudier’s classi cation shows a more accurate pic- ture of the diversity within the family than later classi cations. Comments on the Icones and Cooke’s Myco- graphia are included as they relate to graduate training and opportunities o ered by Richard Korf in his long career as a teacher.

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Haelewaters, D., et al., 2015. Bringing Laboulbeniales into the 21st century: enhanced techniques for extraction and PCR amplification of DNA from minute ectoparasitic fungi. IMA Fungus , 6 (2) , pp. 363–372.Abstract

Laboulbeniales is one of the most peculiar oders of Ascomycota. These fungi are characterized by an ectoparasitic life-style on arthropods, determinate growth, lack of an asexual stage, high species richness, and intractability to culture. The order Laboulbeniales, sister to Pyxidiophorales, has only recently been assigned a separate class, the Laboulbeniomycetes, based on very fewribosomal DNA sequences. So far, DNA isolations and PCR ampli cations have proven dif cult. Here,we provide details of isolation techniques and the application of commercially available kits that enableef cient and reliable genetic analyses of these fungi. We provide 43 newly generated Laboulbenialesribosomal DNA sequences, among which are the rst published sequences for species in the generaGloeandromyces, Herpomyces, Laboulbenia, Monoicomyces, and Polyandromyces. DNA extractions were possible using from 1 to 30 thalli from hosts preserved in ethanol (70–100 %). In two cases, we successfully isolated DNA from thalli on dried insect collections. Laboulbeniales molecular systematics could be substantially enhanced through these improved methods by allowing more complete sampling of both taxa and gene regions.

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Pfister, D.H., 2015. Chapter 2. Pezizomycotina: Pezizomycetes, Orbiliomycetes. The Mycota VII (B). In D. J. Mclaughlin & J. W. Spatafora, ed. Systematics and Evolution. Springer-Verlag, pp. 35-55. PDF
Haelewaters, D., et al., 2015. Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota) of the Boston Harbor Islands I: species parasitizing Coccinellidae and Staphylinidae. Northeastern Naturalist , 22 (3) , pp. 459-477.Abstract

This paper, based on a recent comprehensive sampling of insects, is the rstreport of Laboulbeniales from the New England region since the 1930s. We present 7 new records of laboulbenialean parasites on Staphylinidae (rove beetles) and Coccinellidae (lady beetles) from the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. These are Clonophoro- myces nipponicus Terada & I.I. Tav., Hesperomyces virescens Thaxt., Ilyomyces cf. maireiF. Picard, Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxt., Peyritschiella protea Thaxt., Stichomyces conoso- matis Thaxt., and Teratomyces actobii Thaxt. One of these parasite species, C. nipponicus, has not been found previously outside of its type locality in Japan. Examination of Roland Thaxter’s 1891–1932 slides led to the designation of lectotypes for L. philonthi, P. protea,S. conosomatis, and T. actobii. The following synonymy is established: Teratomyces brevi- caulis Thaxt. = T. actobii. In addition, we discovered new localities for H. virescens (from Canada, Cuba, Guatemala, and Japan) and L. philonthi (from Canada, Grenada, Panama, Trinidad, and Venezuela).

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2014
Peric, B., LoBuglio, K.F. & Pfister, D.H., 2014. The genus Strobiloscypha: A new species and an unresolved phylogenetic placement. Mycologia Montenegro , (16) , pp. 7-22.Abstract

A new species of the genus Strobiloscypha, S. cupressina, is described from collections made in Montenegro. is species, like the other species in the genus, S. keliae, occurs on rotting leaves and cones of Cupressaceae. e genus had been assigned to the Sarcosomataceae but molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that it falls outside that family with no resolved placement elsewhere. Morphologically it is perhaps most close to theChorioactidaceae.

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Haelewaters, D., Schilthuizen, M. & Pfister, D.H., 2014. On Diphymyces (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) in Malaysian Borneo. Plant Ecology and Evolution , 147 , pp. 93-100.Abstract

Background - Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) are microscopic ectoparasites of Arthropoda. Since many Laboulbeniales are known to be host-specific, wet tropical areas with high arthropod diversity are likely to house a high diversity of Laboulbeniales, as well. In this paper, we reveal the presence of the genus Diphymyces I.I.Tav. in Malaysian Borneo. After fieldwork in disturbed and pristine tropical rainforest in Borneo, representatives of this genus were discovered that did not match the description of any of the fourteen known species.Methods - Insects were collected with dry pitfall traps baited with Limburger cheese. Fungal material was studied and described using morphology-based methods.Key results - A new species, Diphymyces sabahensis Haelew. & Pfister, is described and illustrated. Hosts for this species are recently described taxa in Ptomaphaginus Portevin, 1914 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini), representing a new host genus for Diphymyces. Other, morphologically distinctive records of Diphymyces were found; on one host specimen they co-occur with D. sabahensis. These divergent thalli are remarkable in their restricted occurrence on the metatibiae, and thus may represent a morphological variant of D. sabahensis. A review of all described species of Diphymyces, with hosts and geographical distribution, is also presented in tabulated form.

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Haelewaters, D., et al., 2014. Erratum to: Hesperomyces virescens (Fungi, Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) attacking Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in its native range. Chinese Science Bulletin , 59 , pp. 1482-1482.Abstract

This study intended to find data on obligate ec- toparasitic Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) on ChineseHarmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). After having screened over four thousand dried specimens of H. axyridisand close relatives, we present the first (historical) record of Chinese H. axyridis infected with Hesperomyces virescens. We suggest that H. virescens is a historically globally dis- tributed species and hypothesize that (native) infection was lost when H. axyridis was introduced in North America.

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Haelewaters, D., et al., 2014. Hesperomyces virescens (Fungi, Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) attacking Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in its native range. Chinese Science Bulletin , 59 , pp. 528-532.Abstract

This study intended to find data on obligate ec- toparasitic Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) on ChineseHarmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). After having screened over four thousand dried specimens of H. axyridisand close relatives, we present the first (historical) record of Chinese H. axyridis infected with Hesperomyces virescens. We suggest that H. virescens is a historically globally dis- tributed species and hypothesize that (native) infection was lost when H. axyridis was introduced in North America.

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Medardi, G., et al., 2014. Morphological and molecular study of Peziza emileia and P-howsei, two distinct taxa. Mycological Progress , 13 , pp. 1227-1234.Abstract

Peziza emileia Cooke and P. howsei Roze & Boud. are compared here; they are morphologically very similar, but the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence is unique for each of the two species. Furthermore, since the holotype of P. emileia deposited in Kew (K) contains an unidentified fungus and the holotype of P. howsei in Paris (PC) no longer exists, we provide lectotypification and epitypification for both taxa.

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Ge, Z.W., et al., 2014. Multigene Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeographic Diversification of the Earth Tongue Fungi in the Genera Cudonia and Spathularia (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota). Plos One , 9.Abstract

The family Cudoniaceae (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota) was erected to accommodate the "earth tongue fungi" in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia. There have been no recent taxonomic studies of these genera, and the evolutionary relationships within and among these fungi are largely unknown. Here we explore the molecular phylogenetic relationships within Cudonia and Spathularia using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on 111 collections from across the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenies based on the combined data from ITS, nrLSU, rpb2 and tef-1 alpha sequences support the monophyly of three main clades, the /flavida, /velutipes, and /cudonia clades. The genus Cudonia and the family Cudoniaceae are supported as monophyletic groups, while the genus Spathularia is not monophyletic. Although Cudoniaceae is monophyletic, our analyses agree with previous studies that this family is nested within the Rhytismataceae. Our phylogenetic analyses circumscribes 32 species-level clades, including the putative recognition of 23 undescribed phylogenetic species. Our molecular phylogeny also revealed an unexpectedly high species diversity of Cudonia and Spathularia in eastern Asia, with 16 (out of 21) species-level clades of Cudonia and 8 (out of 11) species-level clades of Spathularia. We estimate that the divergence time of the Cudoniaceae was in the Paleogene approximately 28 Million years ago (Mya) and that the ancestral area for this group of fungi was in Eastern Asia based on the current data. We hypothesize that the large-scale geological and climatic events in Oligocene (e. g. the global cooling and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau) may have triggered evolutionary radiations in this group of fungi in East Asia. This work provides a foundation for future studies on the phylogeny, diversity, and evolution of Cudonia and Spathularia and highlights the need for more molecular studies on collections from Europe and North America.

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Karakehian, J.M., LoBuglio, K.F. & Pfister, D.H., 2014. Placement of the genus Angelina within Rhytismatales and observations of Angelina rufescens. Mycologia , 106 , pp. 154-162.Abstract

Angelina rufescens is placed within the core clade of Rhytismatales (Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) based on analysis of LSU and mtSSU rDNA. The only species in the genus, it produces distinctive ascomata that reoccur annually on wood and on the remains of its own previous fructifications, forming dense conglomerations of interlocking longitudinally elongated apothecia with gray hymenia. Known collections and references of A. rufescens indicate that it is endemic to eastern and central United States. Morphological and cultural characters are described with notes on ascomata development. No mitospores were observed in field collections or in culture. Lectotypes are designated for Hysterium rufescens and its synonym Ascobolus conglomeratus. Angelina rufescens is illustrated here for the first time in the taxonomic literature.

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2013
Pfister, D.H., et al., 2013. The Caloscyphaceae (Pezizomycetes, Ascomycota), with a new genus. Mycological Progress , 12 , pp. 667-674.Abstract

The family Caloscyphaceae with a single genus, Caloscypha, has been considered to include a single species, C. fulgens. Study of an overlooked second species, Caloscypha incarnata from North Africa and Italy, using SSU, LSU rDNA, and morphology allows placement of this species in a new genus, Kallistoskypha, in the Caloscyphaceae. This fungus is found in association with Eucalyptus species. The species was recently redescribed from Spain under the name Marcelleina parvispora. Caloscypha fulgens, the type species of the genus Caloscypha, shows sequence variation from across its range.

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Healy, R.A., et al., 2013. High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal Pezizales. Molecular Ecology , 22 , pp. 1717-1732.Abstract

Fungal mitospores may function as dispersal units and/ or spermatia and thus play a role in distribution and/or mating of species that produce them. Mitospore production in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) Pezizales is rarely reported, but here we document mitospore production by a high diversity of EcM Pezizales on three continents, in both hemispheres. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA from 292 spore mats (visible mitospore clumps) collected in Argentina, Chile, China, Mexico and the USA between 2009 and 2012. We collated spore mat ITS sequences with 105 fruit body and 47 EcM root sequences to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic inferences were made through analyses of both molecular data sets. A total of 48 OTUs from spore mats represented six independent EcM Pezizales lineages and included truffles and cup fungi. Three clades of seven OTUs have no known meiospore stage. Mitospores failed to germinate on sterile media, or form ectomycorrhizas on Quercus, Pinus and Populus seedlings, consistent with a hypothesized role of spermatia. The broad geographic range, high frequency and phylogenetic diversity of spore mats produced by EcM Pezizales suggests that a mitospore stage is important for many species in this group in terms of mating, reproduction and/or dispersal.

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Bonito, G., et al., 2013. Historical Biogeography and Diversification of Truffles in the Tuberaceae and Their Newly Identified Southern Hemisphere Sister Lineage. Plos One , 8.Abstract

Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae - the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundi. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (similar to 156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle evolution and biodiversity.

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